An analysis of different chemical weapons and nerve agents used in chemical warfare

Other forms of dissemination include aerodynamic dissemination, a non-explosive delivery mechanism that deploys the chemical agent through dispersion lines. If the exposure is not so overwhelming as to cause death within a few minutes, other effects appear.

The G-series is thus named because German scientists first synthesized them. The oxime attacks the P-O bond whereby an operational enzyme and a phosphorylated oxime, which is rapidly hydrolyzed to non-toxic products, are formed. A diazepam tablet is also generally given as a pretreatment, primarily affecting the central nervous system.

It should be noted that the ease with which mustard can be manufactured and its great possibilities for acting as a vapor would suggest that in a possible future chemical war HD will be preferred to HN.

Hospitals receiving contaminated people may establish an area outside the Emergency Department in which to perform initial decontamination before people and equipment are allowed entry.

Subsequently, the victim should be treated by qualified medical staff who should initially inject additional atropine and an anti-convulsant drug, diazepam. If assisted ventilation is initiatedthe individual may survive several lethal doses of a nerve agent. The lungs and the eyes absorb nerve agents rapidly.

High-pitched, distressed breathing can occur. If contamination is more extensive, superficial blisters occur within 24 hours of exposure. A few milligrams applied to the skin cause severe irritation, intense pain, and subsequently a necrotizing wound.

Leonardo da Vinci proposed the use of a powder of sulfide, arsenic and verdigris in the 15th century: There are two main classes of nerve agents based upon alkylphosphonic acid esters. Molecular structure of nerve agents resembles organophosphate pesticides.

The Chemical Weapons Convention is a multilateral treaty that bans the development, production, acquisition, stockpiling, transfer, and use of chemical weapons and requires all possessor states to destroy their stockpiles safely.

This is mainly caused by the more volatile nerve agents evaporating from naked skin. Chemical weapons are considered weapons of mass destruction and their use in armed conflict is a violation of international law.

HI-6 functions as a reactivator which restores the enzyme to an operational condition. It is terminated by the signs and symptoms of pulmonary edema.

Chemical Warfare

A chemical weapon is any toxic chemical that can cause death, injury, incapacitation, and sensory irritation, deployed via a delivery system, such as an artillery shell, rocket, or ballistic missile. In low concentrations, phosgene oxime severely irritates the eyes and respiratory organs.

Portable decontamination equipment with showers and run-off water collection systems are commercially available. The effect of intentional release of CW agent varies greatly, depending on several factors, including the toxicity of the compound, its volatility and concentration, the route of exposure, the duration of the exposure and the environmental conditions.

A Triage Model for Chemical Warfare Casualties

The blisters are fragile and usually rupture spontaneously giving way to a suppurating and necrotic wound. During the U. No laboratory tests are useful. The effects of vapor are enhanced when used within an enclosed space. In general, classification in terms of physiological effects produced on humans by the CW agents is used for many decades.

Effects may be local or throughout the body. Infection is the most important complicating factor in the healing of mustard burns.CHEMICAL WARFARE The use of chemical agents in warfare goes back to ancient times. napalm and nerve agents. Chemical agents may be delivered by a variety of methods including bombs, spray tanks, rockets, missiles, land mines and artillery projectiles.

delivery systems that can be used in different battle situations, plans for safely. The use of several different types of chemical weapons, including mustard gas (yperite), resulted in 90, deaths and over one million casualties during the war.

preparations were made by many countries to retaliate in kind should chemical weapons be used in warfare. and Iraq also used mustard gas and nerve agents against Kurdish.

The Iraqi military also used chemical weapons against the Iraqi Kurds during the second Persian Gulf War. Nerve agents (such as sarin, soman, cyclohexylsarin, tabun, VX) For many chemical warfare agents, doctors can only treat the symptoms they produce.

But specific, well-established antidotes are available for nerve agent and cyanide. Sampling and Analysis of Organophosphorus Nerve Agents: ” The mandate was to confirm if chemical weapons had been used, it was not to Figure 3 illustrates comparative toxicities of the chemical warfare agents, the position on the y-axis indicating median lethal concentration (LC t Analysis of chemical warfare agents 16 NAVD nerve agents vapour detector, colorimetric biosensor (CA, to the toxic effects of chemical weapons and possibly for the consequences of long-term.

with an overview of chemical warfare agents and analytical methods for their determination.

List of chemical warfare agents

Researchers interested in developing new methods for chemical warfare agents may use the reviewed material to quickly ascertain the state of development of analytical methods, in.

An analysis of different chemical weapons and nerve agents used in chemical warfare
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