An introduction to diabetes mellitus

There are in fact many possible causes of diabetes, and many factors both genetic and environmental which influence development of its two main forms, known as type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

Following experimentation on dogs, their life-saving infusion of a bovine extract of insulin made by their biochemist colleague, Collip to a year-old boy, Leonard Thompson, in at the Toronto General Hospital, proved to be a sensation in the world of diabetic therapy.

Treatment for diabetes mellitus is aimed at reducing blood glucose concentrations to normal levels. Reuptake of glucose in the nephron occurs through sodium-coupled active transport.

Renal glucose loss is not the most severe symptom of diabetes, but it is nevertheless a prominent one. These changes occur primarily in the retina diabetic retinopathy and kidneys diabetic nephropathyand as a result diabetes is the most common cause of blindness and end-stage kidney disease.

Secondary, or symptomatic, diabetes is diverse.

Neonatal diabetes mellitus

Regular insulin is short acting, with an onset of activity at about 30 minutes to 1 hour after injection and a peak activity at 2 to 3 hours. Many patients with type 2 diabetes are asymptomatic, and they are often diagnosed with type 2 diabetes when routine measurements reveal high blood glucose concentrations.

TNDM patients are younger at the age of diagnosis of diabetes and have lower insulin requirements, an overlap occurs between the two groups, therefore TNDM cannot be distinguished from PNDM based clinical feature. This enzyme initiates the breakdown of triacylglycerol to free fatty acids and glycerol, which are then released into the blood stream.

Vascular complications are aggravated by hypertension and hyperlipidemia high serum levels of lipidsboth of which are common in patients with diabetes. The ancient Indian physician, Sushruta, and the surgeon Charaka — A. Autosomal dominant inheritance pattern is defined as a mutation that occurs in only one copy of the gene.

The History of Diabetes Mellitus

The societal strains and the intrinsic chronic burden of the disease make diabetes a disease with serious psychological side effects. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination as well as thirst.

However, its pharmacodynamic properties and mechanism of action are different from those of the sulfonylureas.

Patients with type 1 diabetes have been treated by transplantation of the pancreas or of the islets of Langerhans. Sequence of the human insulin gene. Gestational diabetes Diabetes mellitus also may develop as a secondary condition linked to another disease, such as pancreatic disease; a genetic syndrome, such as myotonic dystrophy; or drugs, such as glucocorticoids.

Type 1 diabetes, formerly referred to as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus IDDM or juvenile-onset diabetes, usually arises in childhood.

Von Mehring J, Minkowski O. The primary filtrate is formed in the glomerulus. From Thebes to Toronto and the 21st century: Most cases of type 1 diabetes develop in children or adolescents, but about 20 percent of new patients are adults. Spontaneous hypoglycemia in adults is of two principal types: Because metformin does not stimulate increased insulin secretion, hypoglycemia is much less common with this drug.

Diabetes mellitus

Cessation of smoking and lowering serum lipid concentrations are also helpful in slowing progression of vascular disease in patients with diabetes.

Target values of HbA1c levels should be close to normal.Neonatal diabetes mellitus; Neonatal Diabetes Mellitus (NDM) Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a disease that affects an infant and their body's ability to produce or use insulin.

Introduction: Within this study a two month old male was admitted into the intensive care unit. Diabetes Mellitus Management - Chronic Complications of Diabetes. Primary treatment goals for diabetes patients include the achieving of blood glucose levels that are as close to normal as possible and the prevention of diabetic complications Diabetes Introduction Diabetes Epidemiology and classification Diabetes Pathophysiology Clinical.

Introduction: Apart from atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus is the most common metabolic disease. It is caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin activity, which disrupts the regulation and balance of many metabolic pathways.

Examining the pathogenesis of diabetes is instructive and a good opportunity for us to recapitulate what we. Diabetes Mellitus: Introduction.

Diabetic Dog Diet. Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Dogs and Cats. Dilated Cardiomyopathy in Dogs and Cats. Discoid Lupus Erythematosus (DLE) in Dogs. Diskospondylitis (Intervertebral Disk Infection) in Dogs and Cats. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) in. (The name diabetes mellitus refers to these symptoms: diabetes, from the Greek diabainein, meaning “to pass through,” describes the copious urination, and mellitus, from the Latin meaning “sweetened with honey,” refers to sugar in the urine.) Other symptoms of diabetes include itching, hunger, weight loss, and.

Jun 25,  · The History of Diabetes Mellitus. Ritu Lakhtakia Author information Routine blood sugar tests at prescribed intervals continued for a long time until the introduction of the glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) estimation. History of diabetes mellitus. Saudi Med J.

; –8. 6.

Download
An introduction to diabetes mellitus
Rated 3/5 based on 98 review