BosnianCroatian and Serbian orthographies are remarkably consistent: To take an example from American English: One of the main reasons for which spelling and pronunciation deviate is that sound changes taking place in the spoken language are not always reflected in the orthography, and hence spellings correspond to historical rather than present-day pronunciation.
The Russian orthography is also mostly morphophonemic, because it does not reflect vowel reduction, consonant assimilation and final-obstruent devoicing.
On the other hand, Korean does not distinguish between voiced and voiceless consonants unlike a number of other languages. After the Norman conquestFrench scribes introduced Orthography and source spellings. In order to maintain a phonemic orthography such a system would need periodic updating, as has been attempted by various language regulators and proposed by other spelling reformers.
Morphophonemic features[ edit ] Alphabetic orthographies often have features that are morphophonemic rather than purely phonemic. At first he kept the u in words like colour or favour but dropped it in later editions.
The Korean hangul system was also originally an extremely shallow orthography, but as a representation of the modern language it frequently also reflects morphophonemic features. Spelling, though important, is less important than how the language is used in practice.
It has a different function, and is produced mechanically. That means they get close to one letter for each sound. The spelling of the English language is by far the most irregular of all alphabetic spellings and thus the most difficult to learn.
English orthography is highly non-phonemic. English is highly non-phonemic. Some languages use diacritics to distinguish between a digraph and a sequence of individual letters, and others require knowledge of the language to distinguish them; compare goatherd in English. For full discussion of degrees of correspondence between spelling and pronunciation in alphabetic orthographies, including reasons why such correspondence may break down, see Phonemic orthography.
Another such ideal phonemic orthography is native to Esperantoemploying the language creator L. Modern Indo-Aryan languages like HindiPunjabiGujaratiMaithili and several others feature schwa deletionwhere the implicit default vowel is suppressed without being explicitly marked as such.
They are the necessary outer clothes, but the inner substance is more important. Systems like IPA can be used for phonemic representation or for showing more detailed phonetic information see Narrow vs.
From its early roots as Anglo-Saxonit has borrowed words from many other languages: Frenchwith its silent letters and its heavy use of nasal vowels and elisionmay seem to lack much correspondence between spelling and pronunciation, but its rules on pronunciation, though complex, are consistent and predictable with a fair degree of accuracy.
An example in English is the lack of any indication of stress.
However, for the learner, programmatic languages, with well-defined rules, are easier to start with than English. Moreover, in many other words, the pronunciation has subsequently evolved from a fixed spelling, so that it has to be said that the phonemes represent the graphemes rather than vice versa.
Orthographies tend to reflect a standard variety of the language; however, for an international language with wide variations in its dialects, such as Englishit would be impossible to represent even the major varieties of the language with a single phonemic orthography.
Many English words retain spellings that reflect their etymology and morphology rather than their present-day pronunciation. British and American English[ change change source ] Differences between American English and British English spelling came about mainly as the result of one man.
Therefore, all alphabets have sounds which are difficult to represent with the letters in use.
The first list contains deviations that tend only to make the relation between spelling and pronunciation more complex, without affecting its predictability see above paragraph. Also, some consonant combinations have silent consonants. Many otherwise phonemic orthographies are slightly defective: French a Romance language and Latin are the most frequent donors to English.
However, as pronunciation of letters changed over time, the diacritic marks were reduced to representing the stressed syllable.Orthography definition, the art of writing words with the proper letters, according to accepted usage; correct spelling.
Orthography is (1) the practice or study of correct spelling; (2) the study of letters and how they are used to express sounds and form words. An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.
In linguistics, a phonemic orthography is an orthography (system for writing a language) Spellings of loanwords often adhere to or are influenced by the orthography of the source language (as with the English words ballet and fajita, from French and Spanish respectively).
With some loanwords, though, regularity is retained either by. *ORTHOGRAPHY* [Through FRENCH  and LATIN  from GREEK orthographía correct writing]. *1.* A term for CORRECT  or accepted WRITING and SPELLING  and for a normative set of conventions for writing and especially spelling.
Would you say both are correct? I have a doubt about "open-source", but I've seen it quite a lot. Thank you.Download